Muslims in Northern Africa experience a defensive response to European imperialism in the form of a fundamentalist movement called Wahabism in which a messiah or madhi is expected to arise to lead the people against the "evil empire." (Recall the Jews in during Roman occupation in which there were great expectations that a messiah would arise. Unlike the Christian Humanism of the Renaissance and unlike Japanese acceptance of Western science and some modern systems, the Wahabi movement did not make a progressive effort to reconcile Western scientific and political progress with Islamic traditions. African and Mid-Eastern proximity to Europe also made for a more confrontational response. Japan's isolation protected it from the more violent incursions that dominated the encounters in Africa, SW Asia and South Asia.
Yukichi Fukuzawa and Fukoku Kyouhei.
Rangaku (Dutch Studies) from the 17th through the 19th centuries.
Fukoku Kyouhei -- Learning teams sent out to European countries to study various systems -- army (Germany), public education (France), postal service (England)
Yukichi Fukuzawa -- argued that the best from the West needed to be incorporated into Japan but without jebprodizing Buddhist and Shinto traditions.
On the "Jesus' brother in the Taiping Rebellion