Compare and contrast Japanese and Islamic responses to the European challenge.

Muslims in Northern Africa experience a defensive response to European imperialism in the form of a fundamentalist movement called Wahabism in which a messiah or madhi is expected to arise to lead the people against the "evil empire." (Recall the Jews in during Roman occupation in which there were great expectations that a messiah would arise. Unlike the Christian Humanism of the Renaissance and unlike Japanese acceptance of Western science and some modern systems, the Wahabi movement did not make a progressive effort to reconcile Western scientific and political progress with Islamic traditions. African and Mid-Eastern proximity to Europe also made for a more confrontational response. Japan's isolation protected it from the more violent incursions that dominated the encounters in Africa, SW Asia and South Asia.
Southeast Asia

Japanese responses:
Yukichi Fukuzawa and Fukoku Kyouhei.

Rangaku (Dutch Studies) from the 17th through the 19th centuries.

Fukoku Kyouhei -- Learning teams sent out to European countries to study various systems -- army (Germany), public education (France), postal service (England)

Yukichi Fukuzawa -- argued that the best from the West needed to be incorporated into Japan but without jebprodizing Buddhist and Shinto traditions.



On the "Jesus' brother in the Taiping Rebellion